Battery Principles and Basics
The smallest working unit in a battery is the electrochemical cell, consisting
of a cathode and an anode separated and connected by an electrolyte. The
electrolyte conducts ions but is an insulator to electrons. In a charged state,
the anode contains a high concentration of intercalated lithium while the
cathode is depleted of lithium. During the discharge, a lithium ion leaves the
anode and migrates through the electrolyte to the cathode while its associated
electron is collected by the current collector to be used to power an electric
device (illustrated below).
The electrodes in lithium-ion cells are always solid materials. One can
distinguish between cell types according to their electrolytes, which may be
liquid, gel, or solid-state components. The electrolytes in gel and
solid-state cells represent a structural component and do not need
additional separators for the effective separation of electrodes and
avoidance of short circuits. Cells come in button, cylindrical, and
For low-energy and low-power applications, a cell often represents a full
battery. For high-energy and high-power applications (such as transportation or
stationary storage) a number of cells are packaged in a module, and a number of
modules are packaged in a battery.
Lithium ion based battery systems have dominated every market they have ever
been introduced into, including cell phones, laptop computers, power tools, and
most recently, automobiles. Utilizing newly developed technology, Corvus is now
poised to enter the untapped market of large foot print lithium ion batteries.
There is a strong demand in many industries to replace the existing lead acid
based batteries with smaller and lighter batteries. In addition to being less
costly than the existing battery systems, the new Corvus battery system has
opened up the doors for new applications. These include hybrid/electric marine propulsion applications such as environmentally
sensitive harbor tug boats, pure electric passenger ferries, high performance
sailboats, improved personal yachts and submersibles. Corvus lithium ion batteries are also ideal for light
weight solar array batteries and portable wind power storage batteries. There are also a
number of military battery applications which would benefit from Corvus technology.
The team of engineers at Corvus has extensive experience in battery power
design and powertrain development, as well as in the production of battery
storage systems for all its applications. This unique combination of experience
and capability provides the customer with a seasoned, value-added approach to
the integration of high performance battery storage technology to their
projects. The various industries can now tap into this resource in order to
provide solutions to their world-wide market needs and secure a premier position in
their respective fields.
Corvus utilizes advanced lithium ion polymer cells in multi-cell module configurations. These configurations are
monitored by a proprietary battery management system to control charge, discharge and monitor all aspects of the module, pack and array.
Multi-module arrays are capable of producing energy storage in mega watt scale sizes.
The Corvus proprietary battery management system starts at the module level
monitoring voltage, temperature and actively balancing cells. Multi-module packs are
managed by pack controllers up to one thousand volts and battery pack arrays are
managed by an array controller without energy limits.
Marine applications include hybrid-electric and electric marine propulsion systems
including environmentally beneficial hybrid harbor tug boats and pure electric passenger
ferries. Corvus battery systems can support solar arrays, wind farms and hydro